The Fabrica by Andreas Vesalius

“A blind man works on wood the same way as a surgeon on the body when he is ignorant of anatomy.” –Chirurgia Magna, Treatise I, Doctrine I, Ch I Every surgeon knows the importance of anatomy. It is impossible to navigate through the human body without having an accurate roadmap. Until the Renaissance, the knowledge of […]

PLIF by Ralph Cloward (1953)

Cloward, R. B. (1953). The treatment of ruptured lumbar intervertebral discs by vertebral body fusion.  I.  Indications, operative technique, after care. J Neurosurg, 10(2), 154–168. Ralph Cloward is credited for the technical innovation of posterior lumbar interbody fusion or PLIF. Following the report by Mixter and Barr in 1934, discectomy became a standard operation for […]

Ralph B. Cloward (1908-2010)

Dr. Ralph Cloward, MD (1908-2010) Born in Salt Lake City, Utah, USA Medical School: University of Utah and Rush Medical College (University of Chicago). Graduated in 1934 Internship: St. Luke’s Hospital (1934-1935) Neurosurgery residency: Billings Memorial and University of Chicago Clinics from 1935 to 1938 under Prof. Percival Bailey Started practice in 1938 and was Chief of […]